This module aims to provide an introduction to the human rights system within the United Nations, with brief overviews of the United Nations system in general, and how these relate to Indigenous peoples and local communities. This module provides a context for the existing e-learning module on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. It will explore the history of the human rights system, including the existing instruments that comprise the “International Bill of Rights” and other main treaties that set out human rights in the international system. In addition, it will highlight the bodies and mechanisms supporting these treaties, both generally and specifically with respect to Indigenous peoples. Note that many of the mechanisms below can be used by anyone suffering a human rights abuse. Those specific to Indigenous peoples only are specified in the relevant sections below.